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bible verses about courage

Courage in Adversity

  • Joshua 1:9 – “Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid; do not be discouraged, for the Lord your God will be with you wherever you go.”
  • Psalm 27:1 – “The Lord is my light and my salvation—whom shall I fear? The Lord is the stronghold of my life—of whom shall I be afraid?”
  • Psalm 31:24 – “Be strong and take heart, all you who hope in the Lord.”
  • Isaiah 41:10 – “So do not fear, for I am with you; do not be dismayed, for I am your God. I will strengthen you and help you; I will uphold you with my righteous right hand.”
  • Deuteronomy 31:6 – “Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid or terrified because of them, for the Lord your God goes with you; he will never leave you nor forsake you.”
  • Psalm 23:4 – “Even though I walk through the darkest valley, I will fear no evil, for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me.”
  • 1 Corinthians 16:13 – “Be on your guard; stand firm in the faith; be courageous; be strong.”
  • Philippians 1:28 – “Without being frightened in any way by those who oppose you. This is a sign to them that they will be destroyed, but that you will be saved—and that by God.”
  • 2 Timothy 1:7 – “For the Spirit God gave us does not make us timid, but gives us power, love and self-discipline.”
  • 1 Peter 3:14 – “But even if you should suffer for what is right, you are blessed. ‘Do not fear their threats; do not be frightened.'”

Courage to Follow God

  • Joshua 1:18 – “Whoever rebels against your word and does not obey it, whatever you may command them, will be put to death. Only be strong and courageous!”
  • Daniel 3:17-18 – “If we are thrown into the blazing furnace, the God we serve is able to deliver us from it, and he will deliver us from Your Majesty’s hand. But even if he does not, we want you to know, Your Majesty, that we will not serve your gods or worship the image of gold you have set up.”
  • Acts 4:13 – “When they saw the courage of Peter and John and realized that they were unschooled, ordinary men, they were astonished and they took note that these men had been with Jesus.”
  • Ephesians 6:10 – “Finally, be strong in the Lord and in his mighty power.”
  • Acts 27:25 – “So keep up your courage, men, for I have faith in God that it will happen just as he told me.”
  • Hebrews 13:6 – “So we say with confidence, ‘The Lord is my helper; I will not be afraid. What can mere mortals do to me?'”
  • Mark 5:36 – “Overhearing what they said, Jesus told him, ‘Don’t be afraid; just believe.'”
  • Acts 28:15 – “The brothers and sisters there had heard that we were coming, and they traveled as far as the Forum of Appius and the Three Taverns to meet us. At the sight of these people Paul thanked God and was encouraged.”
  • Luke 1:30 – “But the angel said to her, ‘Do not be afraid, Mary; you have found favor with God.'”
  • Matthew 14:27 – “But Jesus immediately said to them: ‘Take courage! It is I. Don’t be afraid.'”

Courage in Leadership

  • Deuteronomy 20:1 – “When you go to war against your enemies and see horses and chariots and an army greater than yours, do not be afraid of them, because the Lord your God, who brought you up out of Egypt, will be with you.”
  • 1 Chronicles 28:20 – “David also said to Solomon his son, ‘Be strong and courageous, and do the work. Do not be afraid or discouraged, for the Lord God, my God, is with you. He will not fail you or forsake you until all the work for the service of the temple of the Lord is finished.'”
  • 2 Chronicles 32:7-8 – “Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid or discouraged because of the king of Assyria and the vast army with him, for there is a greater power with us than with him.”
  • Nehemiah 2:20 – “I answered them by saying, ‘The God of heaven will give us success. We his servants will start rebuilding, but as for you, you have no share in Jerusalem or any claim or historic right to it.'”
  • Acts 23:11 – “The following night the Lord stood near Paul and said, ‘Take courage! As you have testified about me in Jerusalem, so you must also testify in Rome.'”
  • Exodus 14:13 – “Moses answered the people, ‘Do not be afraid. Stand firm and you will see the deliverance the Lord will bring you today. The Egyptians you see today you will never see again.'”
  • 1 Samuel 17:32 – “‘Don’t let anyone lose heart on account of this Philistine; your servant will go and fight him,’ said David.”
  • 2 Samuel 10:12 – “Be strong, and let us fight bravely for our people and the cities of our God. The Lord will do what is good in his sight.”
  • 1 Kings 18:15 – “Elijah said, ‘As the Lord Almighty lives, whom I serve, I will surely present myself to Ahab today.'”
  • Jeremiah 1:8 – “Do not be afraid of them, for I am with you and will rescue you,’ declares the Lord.”

Courage in Faith

  • Hebrews 11:1 – “Now faith is confidence in what we hope for and assurance about what we do not see.”
  • Matthew 8:26 – “He replied, ‘You of little faith, why are you so afraid?’ Then he got up and rebuked the winds and the waves, and it was completely calm.”
  • Luke 8:50 – “Hearing this, Jesus said to Jairus, ‘Don’t be afraid; just believe, and she will be healed.'”
  • Romans 8:15 – “For you did not receive a spirit that makes you a slave again to fear, but you received the Spirit of sonship. And by him we cry, ‘Abba, Father.'”
  • 2 Corinthians 5:7 – “For we live by faith, not by sight.”
  • Hebrews 11:27 – “By faith he left Egypt, not fearing the king’s anger; he persevered because he saw him who is invisible.”
  • Psalm 56:3-4 – “When I am afraid, I put my trust in you. In God, whose word I praise—in God I trust and am not afraid. What can mere mortals do to me?”
  • Galatians 6:9 – “Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up.”
  • Philippians 4:13 – “I can do all this through him who gives me strength.”
  • James 1:12 – “Blessed is the one who perseveres under trial because, having stood the test, that person will receive the crown of life that the Lord has promised to those who love him.”

Courage to Speak Truth

  • Proverbs 31:8-9 – “Speak up for those who cannot speak for themselves, for the rights of all who are destitute. Speak up and judge fairly; defend the rights of the poor and needy.”
  • Acts 18:9-10 – “One night the Lord spoke to Paul in a vision: ‘Do not be afraid; keep on speaking, do not be silent. For I am with you, and no one is going to attack and harm you, because I have many people in this city.'”
  • Ephesians 4:15 – “Instead, speaking the truth in love, we will grow to become in every respect the mature body of him who is the head, that is, Christ.”
  • Jeremiah 1:17 – “Get yourself ready! Stand up and say to them whatever I command you. Do not be terrified by them, or I will terrify you before them.”
  • Micah 3:8 – “But as for me, I am filled with power, with the Spirit of the Lord, and with justice and might, to declare to Jacob his transgression, to Israel his sin.”
  • Acts 4:29 – “Now, Lord, consider their threats and enable your servants to speak your word with great boldness.”
  • 2 Timothy 4:2 – “Preach the word; be prepared in season and out of season; correct, rebuke and encourage—with great patience and careful instruction.”
  • Luke 12:11-12 – “When you are brought before synagogues, rulers and authorities, do not worry about how you will defend yourselves or what you will say, for the Holy Spirit will teach you at that time what you should say.”
  • Acts 13:46 – “Then Paul and Barnabas answered them boldly: ‘We had to speak the word of God to you first. Since you reject it and do not consider yourselves worthy of eternal life, we now turn to the Gentiles.'”
  • Proverbs 28:1 – “The wicked flee though no one pursues, but the righteous are as bold as a lion.”

Courage in Worship

  • 2 Samuel 6:14 – “Wearing a linen ephod, David was dancing before the Lord with all his might.”
  • Psalm 150:1-6 – “Praise the Lord. Praise God in his sanctuary; praise him in his mighty heavens. Praise him for his acts of power; praise him for his surpassing greatness. Praise him with the sounding of the trumpet, praise him with the harp and lyre, praise him with timbrel and dancing, praise him with the strings and pipe, praise him with the clash of cymbals, praise him with resounding cymbals. Let everything that has breath praise the Lord. Praise the Lord.”
  • Luke 7:37-38 – “A woman in that town who lived a sinful life learned that Jesus was eating at the Pharisee’s house, so she came there with an alabaster jar of perfume. As she stood behind him at his feet weeping, she began to wet his feet with her tears. Then she wiped them with her hair, kissed them and poured perfume on them.”
  • Hebrews 12:28-29 – “Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken, let us be thankful, and so worship God acceptably with reverence and awe, for our ‘God is a consuming fire.'”
  • Psalm 95:6-7 – “Come, let us bow down in worship, let us kneel before the Lord our Maker; for he is our God and we are the people of his pasture, the flock under his care.”
  • John 4:24 – “God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in the Spirit and in truth.”
  • Psalm 42:4 – “These things I remember as I pour out my soul: how I used to go to the house of God under the protection of the Mighty One with shouts of joy and praise among the festive throng.”
  • 1 Chronicles 16:29 – “Ascribe to the Lord the glory due his name; bring an offering and come before him. Worship the Lord in the splendor of his holiness.”
  • Psalm 99:5 – “Exalt the Lord our God and worship at his footstool; he is holy.”
  • Psalm 100:2 – “Worship the Lord with gladness; come before him with joyful songs.”

Courage in Personal Growth and Change

  • Philippians 3:13-14 – “Brothers and sisters, I do not consider myself yet to have taken hold of it. But one thing I do: Forgetting what is behind and straining toward what is ahead, I press on toward the goal to win the prize for which God has called me heavenward in Christ Jesus.”
  • Romans 12:2 – “Do not conform to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what God’s will is—his good, pleasing and perfect will.”
  • Ephesians 4:22-24 – “You were taught, with regard to your former way of life, to put off your old self, which is being corrupted by its deceitful desires; to be made new in the attitude of your minds; and to put on the new self, created to be like God in true righteousness and holiness.”
  • 2 Corinthians 5:17 – “Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, the new creation has come: The old has gone, the new is here!”
  • Galatians 2:20 – “I have been crucified with Christ and I no longer live, but Christ lives in me. The life I now live in the body, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.”
  • James 4:10 – “Humble yourselves before the Lord, and he will lift you up.”
  • 1 Peter 2:1-2 – “Therefore, rid yourselves of all malice and all deceit, hypocrisy, envy, and slander of every kind. Like newborn babies, crave pure spiritual milk, so that by it you may grow up in your salvation.”
  • Colossians 3:10 – “And have put on the new self, which is being renewed in knowledge in the image of its Creator.”
  • Hebrews 6:1 – “Therefore let us move beyond the elementary teachings about Christ and be taken forward to maturity, not laying again the foundation of repentance from acts that lead to death, and of faith in God.”
  • Isaiah 43:18-19 – “Forget the former things; do not dwell on the past. See, I am doing a new thing! Now it springs up; do you not perceive it? I am making a way in the wilderness and streams in the wasteland.”

Courage in Serving Others

  • Matthew 20:26-28 – “Not so with you. Instead, whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant, and whoever wants to be first must be your slave—just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.”
  • Galatians 5:13 – “You, my brothers and sisters, were called to be free. But do not use your freedom to indulge the flesh; rather, serve one another humbly in love.”
  • 1 Peter 4:10 – “Each of you should use whatever gift you have received to serve others, as faithful stewards of God’s grace in its various forms.”
  • Mark 10:43-45 – “Not so with you. Instead, whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant, and whoever wants to be first must be slave of all. For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.”
  • John 13:14-15 – “Now that I, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also should wash one another’s feet. I have set you an example that you should do as I have done for you.”
  • Hebrews 13:16 – “And do not forget to do good and to share with others, for with such sacrifices God is pleased.”
  • Philippians 2:3-4 – “Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves, not looking to your own interests but each of you to the interests of the others.”
  • Luke 10:33-34 – “But a Samaritan, as he traveled, came where the man was; and when he saw him, he took pity on him. He went to him and bandaged his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. Then he put the man on his own donkey, brought him to an inn and took care of him.”
  • Proverbs 31:8-9 – “Speak up for those who cannot speak for themselves, for the rights of all who are destitute. Speak up and judge fairly; defend the rights of the poor and needy.”
  • Acts 20:35 – “In everything I did, I showed you that by this kind of hard work we must help the weak, remembering the words the Lord Jesus himself said: ‘It is more blessed to give than to receive.'”

Courage in Overcoming Fear

  • Isaiah 35:4 – “Say to those with fearful hearts, ‘Be strong, do not fear; your God will come, he will come with vengeance; with divine retribution he will come to save you.'”
  • Psalm 34:4 – “I sought the Lord, and he answered me; he delivered me from all my fears.”
  • Mark 5:36 – “Overhearing what they said, Jesus told him, ‘Don’t be afraid; just believe.'”
  • Psalm 118:6 – “The Lord is with me; I will not be afraid. What can mere mortals do to me?”
  • Revelation 2:10 – “Do not be afraid of what you are about to suffer. I tell you, the devil will put some of you in prison to test you, and you will suffer persecution for ten days. Be faithful, even to the point of death, and I will give you life as your victor’s crown.”
  • Psalm 56:11 – “In God I trust and am not afraid. What can man do to me?”
  • Matthew 10:28 – “Do not be afraid of those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Rather, be afraid of the One who can destroy both soul and body in hell.”
  • Psalm 112:7 – “They will have no fear of bad news; their hearts are steadfast, trusting in the Lord.”
  • Isaiah 54:4 – “Do not be afraid; you will not be put to shame. Do not fear disgrace; you will not be humiliated. You will forget the shame of your youth and remember no more the reproach of your widowhood.”
  • John 14:27 – “Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid.”

Courage in Hope and Assurance

  • Romans 15:13 – “May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace as you trust in him, so that you may overflow with hope by the power of the Holy Spirit.”
  • Hebrews 6:19 – “We have this hope as an anchor for the soul, firm and secure. It enters the inner sanctuary behind the curtain.”
  • Psalm 146:5 – “Blessed are those whose help is the God of Jacob, whose hope is in the Lord their God.”
  • Titus 3:7 – “So that, having been justified by his grace, we might become heirs having the hope of eternal life.”
  • 1 Peter 1:3 – “Praise be to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! In his great mercy he has given us new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead.”
  • Romans 12:12 – “Be joyful in hope, patient in affliction, faithful in prayer.”
  • Hebrews 11:1 – “Now faith is confidence in what we hope for and assurance about what we do not see.”
  • Psalm 39:7 – “But now, Lord, what do I look for? My hope is in you.”
  • Lamentations 3:24 – “I say to myself, ‘The Lord is my portion; therefore I will wait for him.'”
  • Psalm 130:5 – “I wait for the Lord, my whole being waits, and in his word I put my hope.”

Courage in the Face of Injustice

  • Proverbs 21:15 – “When justice is done, it brings joy to the righteous but terror to evildoers.”
  • Isaiah 1:17 – “Learn to do right; seek justice. Defend the oppressed. Take up the cause of the fatherless; plead the case of the widow.”
  • Micah 6:8 – “He has shown you, O mortal, what is good. And what does the Lord require of you? To act justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God.”
  • Psalm 82:3 – “Defend the weak and the fatherless; uphold the cause of the poor and the oppressed.”
  • Luke 4:18-19 – “The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to set the oppressed free, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.”
  • Proverbs 31:8-9 – “Speak up for those who cannot speak for themselves, for the rights of all who are destitute. Speak up and judge fairly; defend the rights of the poor and needy.”
  • Amos 5:24 – “But let justice roll on like a river, righteousness like a never-failing stream!”
  • Psalm 106:3 – “Blessed are those who act justly, who always do what is right.”
  • Isaiah 58:6 – “Is not this the kind of fasting I have chosen: to loose the chains of injustice and untie the cords of the yoke, to set the oppressed free and break every yoke?”
  • Jeremiah 22:3 – “This is what the Lord says: Do what is just and right. Rescue from the hand of the oppressor the one who has been robbed. Do no wrong or violence to the foreigner, the fatherless or the widow, and do not shed innocent blood in this place.”

Courage through Prayer and Dependence on God

  • Philippians 4:6-7 – “Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.”
  • James 5:13 – “Is anyone among you in trouble? Let them pray. Is anyone happy? Let them sing songs of praise.”
  • Psalm 17:1 – “Hear me, Lord, my plea is just; listen to my cry. Hear my prayer— it does not rise from deceitful lips.”
  • Matthew 21:22 – “If you believe, you will receive whatever you ask for in prayer.”
  • 1 John 5:14-15 – “This is the confidence we have in approaching God: that if we ask anything according to his will, he hears us. And if we know that he hears us—whatever we ask—we know that we have what we asked of him.”
  • Psalm 145:18 – “The Lord is near to all who call on him, to all who call on him in truth.”
  • Ephesians 6:18 – “And pray in the Spirit on all occasions with all kinds of prayers and requests. With this in mind, be alert and always keep on praying for all the Lord’s people.”
  • Luke 18:1 – “Then Jesus told his disciples a parable to show them that they should always pray and not give up.”
  • Colossians 4:2 – “Devote yourselves to prayer, being watchful and thankful.”
  • 2 Chronicles 7:14 – “If my people, who are called by my name, will humble themselves and pray and seek my face and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and I will forgive their sin and will heal their land.”

Courage in Forgiveness and Reconciliation

  • Ephesians 4:31-32 – “Get rid of all bitterness, rage and anger, brawling and slander, along with every form of malice. Be kind and compassionate to one another, forgiving each other, just as in Christ God forgave you.”
  • Colossians 3:13 – “Bear with each other and forgive one another if any of you has a grievance against someone. Forgive as the Lord forgave you.”
  • Matthew 6:14-15 – “For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins.”
  • Luke 17:3-4 – “So watch yourselves. If your brother or sister sins against you, rebuke them; and if they repent, forgive them. Even if they sin against you seven times in a day and seven times come back to you saying ‘I repent,’ you must forgive them.”
  • 2 Corinthians 5:18-19 – “All this is from God, who reconciled us to himself through Christ and gave us the ministry of reconciliation: that God was reconciling the world to himself in Christ, not counting people’s sins against them. And he has committed to us the message of reconciliation.”
  • Matthew 18:21-22 – “Then Peter came to Jesus and asked, ‘Lord, how many times shall I forgive my brother or sister who sins against me? Up to seven times?’ Jesus answered, ‘I tell you, not seven times, but seventy-seven times.'”
  • Romans 12:18 – “If it is possible, as far as it depends on you, live at peace with everyone.”
  • Matthew 5:23-24 – “Therefore, if you are offering your gift at the altar and there remember that your brother or sister has something against you, leave your gift there in front of the altar. First go and be reconciled to them; then come and offer your gift.”
  • Luke 6:37 – “Do not judge, and you will not be judged. Do not condemn, and you will not be condemned. Forgive, and you will be forgiven.”
  • 1 Peter 4:8 – “Above all, love each other deeply, because love covers over a multitude of sins.”

Courage to Trust in God’s Timing

  • Ecclesiastes 3:1 – “To everything there is a season, and a time for every purpose under heaven.”
  • Habakkuk 2:3 – “For the revelation awaits an appointed time; it speaks of the end and will not prove false. Though it linger, wait for it; it will certainly come and will not delay.”
  • Psalm 27:14 – “Wait for the Lord; be strong and take heart and wait for the Lord.”
  • Isaiah 40:31 – “But those who hope in the Lord will renew their strength. They will soar on wings like eagles; they will run and not grow weary, they will walk and not be faint.”
  • Galatians 6:9 – “Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up.”
  • Psalm 37:7 – “Be still before the Lord and wait patiently for him; do not fret when people succeed in their ways, when they carry out their wicked schemes.”
  • Psalm 130:5 – “I wait for the Lord, my whole being waits, and in his word I put my hope.”
  • Lamentations 3:25 – “The Lord is good to those whose hope is in him, to the one who seeks him;”
  • James 5:7-8 – “Be patient, then, brothers and sisters, until the Lord’s coming. See how the farmer waits for the land to yield its valuable crop, patiently waiting for the autumn and spring rains. You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near.”
  • Proverbs 3:5-6 – “Trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding; in all your ways submit to him, and he will make your paths straight.”

Courage in Facing Temptation

  • 1 Corinthians 10:13 – “No temptation has overtaken you except what is common to mankind. And God is faithful; he will not let you be tempted beyond what you can bear. But when you are tempted, he will also provide a way out so that you can endure it.”
  • James 1:12-14 – “Blessed is the one who perseveres under trial because, having stood the test, that person will receive the crown of life that the Lord has promised to those who love him. When tempted, no one should say, ‘God is tempting me.’ For God cannot be tempted by evil, nor does he tempt anyone; but each person is tempted when they are dragged away by their own evil desire and enticed.”
  • Ephesians 6:11 – “Put on the full armor of God, so that you can take your stand against the devil’s schemes.”
  • Matthew 26:41 – “Watch and pray so that you will not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.”
  • Galatians 5:16 – “So I say, walk by the Spirit, and you will not gratify the desires of the flesh.”
  • Psalm 119:11 – “I have hidden your word in my heart that I might not sin against you.”
  • 2 Peter 2:9 – “The Lord knows how to rescue the godly from trials and to hold the unrighteous for punishment on the day of judgment.”
  • 1 Peter 5:8-9 – “Be alert and of sober mind. Your enemy the devil prowls around like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour. Resist him, standing firm in the faith, because you know that the family of believers throughout the world is undergoing the same kind of sufferings.”
  • James 4:7 – “Submit yourselves, then, to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you.”
  • 2 Timothy 2:22 – “Flee the evil desires of youth and pursue righteousness, faith, love and peace, along with those who call on the Lord out of a pure heart.”

Courage in Witnessing and Evangelism

  • Matthew 28:19-20 – “Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.”
  • Acts 1:8 – “But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.”
  • Romans 1:16 – “For I am not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the power of God that brings salvation to everyone who believes: first to the Jew, then to the Gentile.”
  • 2 Timothy 4:5 – “But you, keep your head in all situations, endure hardship, do the work of an evangelist, discharge all the duties of your ministry.”
  • 1 Peter 3:15 – “But in your hearts revere Christ as Lord. Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have. But do this with gentleness and respect.”
  • Luke 12:8-9 – “I tell you, whoever publicly acknowledges me before others, the Son of Man will also acknowledge before the angels of God. But whoever disowns me before others will be disowned before the angels of God.”
  • Mark 16:15 – “He said to them, ‘Go into all the world and preach the gospel to all creation.'”
  • Acts 4:31 – “After they prayed, the place where they were meeting was shaken. And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and spoke the word of God boldly.”
  • 1 Corinthians 9:16 – “For when I preach the gospel, I cannot boast, since I am compelled to preach. Woe to me if I do not preach the gospel!”
  • Philippians 1:14 – “And because of my chains, most of the brothers and sisters have become confident in the Lord and dare all the more to proclaim the gospel without fear.”